2010年3月21日

戈尔巴乔夫在苏联解体时发表的辞职演讲

此份1991年圣诞日演说里,米哈伊尔·谢尔盖耶维奇·戈尔巴乔夫辞去了苏维埃社会主义共和国联盟总统一职。这一行为和平解体了1917年十月诞生的这个共产主义(社会主义性质)国家。这份完整的演讲稿于1999年圣诞节公布。


亲爱的同胞们,朋友们:

面对独立国家联合体(编者注:在苏联几乎解体的同时由加盟共和国协调成立的一个国家联盟)建立这个新的政治局面,我宣布辞去苏维埃社会主义共和国联盟总统的职务。做这个决定是我坚持一些基本处事原则的结果。我一直以来坚决支持加盟共和国独立自主的主权,但同时也支持维护苏联的政权联合,国家统一。

但事态发展背离了初衷。即使我不能赞同解体苏联,分裂这个政局的政策仍然占了上风。在阿拉木图会议决议之后,我在这个方面的态度仍然没有改变。此外,我确信最终的决定应该建立在大众的期待和意愿的基础之上。


然而,我会继续尽我权力所能保证所签署的协议能成为真实可行的条约,同时能使社会摆脱危机和改革进程的困境。我以苏联总统的身份最后一次向您做演讲,我认为有必要对自1985年以来苏联经历的改革做出评价和总结,尤其是在此段改革历程承受着一些矛盾、浮浅和主观的评价的情况下。


似乎是命中注定的,在我接手这个国家的时候,形势已经不容乐观。虽然我们拥有丰富土地、石油、天然气等自然资源,上帝也赐予了人民智慧与才华,我们的生活依旧远远落后于发达国家,并且在落后的道路上渐行渐远。

原因显而易见:这个社会被命令式的官僚主义系统压制,注定被不切实际的国家“理想”所利用,同时也承受着沉重的军备竞赛的负担,以致于国家已经到了它能力的极限。那些曾尝试过的数量不小的局部改革,相继以失败告终。这个国家正在失去它的发展前景。我们不能继续这样,一切都应该被根本地改变。


事实证明拯救这个国家并根本改变世界现状远比我们所预期的复杂。然而已经发生的事应该也有它们的因果。这个社会需要自由,在政治上和精神上获得自由,得到解放,这是一个我们至今无法完全理解的终极目标,因为我们从没有学会过如何使用自由。

然而,具有历史意义的工作已经完成,在很久之前建立的剥夺了这个国家走向繁荣和兴旺的机会的极权主义系统已告终结。在民主转型的路上,我们有了重大的进展:选举自由、言论自由、宗教自由和多党制 - 具有民主性的权利表达形式 - 已经成为现实,尊重人权也被视为最优先的原则。

与过去完全不同的经济体制已经开始形成,所有制的平等性已经开始建立,劳作在土地上的人民因为土地改革框架的呈现而开始了新生活,自由的农民出现,数以百万英亩的土地被给予那些生活在乡村和城镇的人们。

生产者的经济自由已经合法化,企业制、股份制和私有化势头渐强。在市场经济改革中,重要的是牢记这些都是为了保护个人权益而进行。在这个困难的时刻,更应该尽一切可能巩固社会保障制度,尤其是在老人和儿童方面。


我们生活在一个新世界。冷战已经结束,残害我们经济、公众精神和道德的疯狂的军备竞赛已经停止,世界大战的威胁已经消除。我想再一次强调,为了保证能建立可靠的对核武器的控制,我的交接工作已经在转型期内完成。

我们对世界开放自己,用对干涉他国事务和使用境外军队的放弃,换来了信任、团结和尊重。


我们的国家和公民真正获得了自由地选择发展道路的自主权。联邦制民主改革的探索使我们达成了建立新的独联体的最底线共识。这些改变也带给了我们极大的焦虑,因为伴随而来的是不断增长的来自腐朽的旧势力的反抗,以种种尖锐的斗争表现出来。

旧的体制在新体制未能有足够时间运转之前崩溃,社会危机因此更加严重。


八月政变(编者注:当時苏联政府的一些官员企图废除总统戈尔巴乔夫并取得对苏联的控制,他们相信戈尔巴乔夫的改革计划太过份,并认为他正商议签订的新联盟条约过分分散权力给众共和国,此事件粉碎了戈尔巴乔夫对苏联可至少在一较松散体制下维持一体的希望。)把社会危机带到了一个极限,这次政变最糟糕的后果就是苏联的解体。今天我担心人民将失去成为一个强大国家的子民的机会,这种情况也许对每个人来说都将意味着艰难的未来。

我带着忧虑离开这个职位,但是我也带着希望,带着对你们的信心,这种信心来自你们的智慧和精神的力量。我们是一个杰出文明的继承人,而这个文明能否进入崭新的、现代化的和有尊严的新生,取决于你们每一个人。

过去的一些错误完全可以被避免,很多事情也可以做得更好,但是我确信不论早晚,我们共同的努力会有结果,我们的国家会成为一个繁荣而民主的社会。

谨此向各位致以我最美好的祝福。


*   *   *

Gorbachev Speech
Dissolving the Soviet Union (USSR):
Christmas 1991

In this Christmas 1991 (western Christendom date) speech , Mikhael S. Gorbachev resigned as president of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). This action was the final act in a peaceful dissolution of this communist (socialist) nation that had been borne out of the October 1917 revolution. This complete text of the speech is offered on Christmas 1999.

Dear compatriots, fellow citizens, as a result of the newly formed situation, creation of the Commonwealth of Independent States, I cease my activities in the post of the U.S.S.R. president. I am taking this decision out of considerations based on principle. I have firmly stood for independence, self-rule of nations, for the sovereignty of the republics, but at the same time for preservation of the union state, the unity of the country.

Events went a different way. The policy prevailed of dismembering this country and disuniting the state, with which I cannot agree. And after the Alma-Ata meeting and the decisions taken there, my position on this matter has not changed. Besides, I am convinced that decisions of such scale should have been taken on the basis of a popular expression of will.

Yet, I will continue to do everything in my power so that agreements signed there should lead to real accord in the society, (and) facilitate the escape from the crisis and the reform process. Addressing you for the last time in the capacity of president of the U.S.S.R., I consider it necessary to express my evaluation of the road we have traveled since 1985, especially as there are a lot of contradictory, superficial and subjective judgments on that matter.

Fate had it that when I found myself at the head of the state it was already clear that all was not well in the country. There is plenty of everything: land, oil and gas, other natural riches, and God gave us lots of intelligence and talent, yet we lived much worse than developed countries and keep falling behind them more and more.

The reason could already be seen: The society was suffocating in the vise of the command-bureaucratic system, doomed to serve ideology and bear the terrible burden of the arms race. It had reached the limit of its possibilities. All attempts at partial reform, and there had been many, had suffered defeat, one after another. The country was losing perspective. We could not go on living like that. Everything had to be changed radically.

The process of renovating the country and radical changes in the world turned out to be far more complicated than could be expected. However, what has been done ought to be given its due. This society acquired freedom, liberated itself politically and spiritually, and this is the foremost achievement which we have not yet understood completely, because we have not learned to use freedom.

However, work of historic significance has been accomplished. The totalitarian system which deprived the country of an opportunity to become successful and prosperous long ago has been eliminated. A breakthrough has been achieved on the way to democratic changes. Free elections, freedom of the press, religious freedoms, representative organs of power, a multiparty (system) became a reality; human rights are recognized as the supreme principle.

The movement to a diverse economy has started, equality of all forms of property is becoming established, people who work on the land are coming to life again in the framework of land reform, farmers have appeared, millions of acres of land are being given over to people who live in the countryside and in towns.

Economic freedom of the producer has been legalized, and entrepreneurship, shareholding, privatization are gaining momentum. In turning the economy toward a market, it is important to remember that all this is done for the sake of the individual. At this difficult time, all should be done for his social protection, especially for senior citizens and children.

We live in a new world. The Cold War has ended, the arms race has stopped, as has the insane militarization which mutilated our economy, public psyche and morals. The threat of a world war has been removed. Once again I want to stress that on my part everything was done during the transition period to preserve reliable control of the nuclear weapons.

We opened ourselves to the world, gave up interference into other people's affairs, the use of troops beyond the borders of the country, and trust, solidarity and respect came in response.

The nations and peoples of this country gained real freedom to choose the way of their self-determination. The search for a democratic reformation of the multinational state brought us to the threshold of concluding a new Union Treaty. All these changes demanded immense strain. They were carried out with sharp struggle, with growing resistance from the old, the obsolete forces.

The old system collapsed before the new one had time to begin working, and the crisis in the society became even more acute.

The August coup brought the general crisis to its ultimate limit. The most damaging thing about this crisis is the breakup of the statehood. And today I am worried by our people's loss of the citizenship of a great country. The consequences may turn out to be very hard for everyone.

I am leaving my post with apprehension, but also with hope, with faith in you, your wisdom and force of spirit. We are the heirs of a great civilization, and its rebirth into a new, modern and dignified life now depends on one and all.

Some mistakes could surely have been avoided, many things could have been done better, but I am convinced that sooner or later our common efforts will bear fruit, our nations will live in a prosperous and democratic society.

I wish all the best to all of you.

6 条评论:

  1. Someonе necesѕаrilу lend а hаnd to make сritically pοsts
    I wοulԁ stаte. This іs the very fіrst time
    I frеquented youг web page and sо
    far? I amazеd wіth the reseаrch
    you maԁe to creatе this particulаr publish аmazіng.
    Excellent job!
    Have a look at my web site Please click the following post

    回复删除
  2. Finе way of describing, аnd gоοd piece of wrіting to get facts regarԁing my
    pгeѕentation focuѕ, which i аm going to convey in univeгѕіty.



    Visit my wеbpage :: mailer.urp.edu.pe

    回复删除
  3. Thanks for the good writeup. It in fact was once a enjoyment account it.
    Glance advanced to more added agreeable from
    you! However, how can we be in contact?

    darfur loftyl liberia news laygos petra
    http://doctorernie.tk/?q=node/3243
    http://nirascuisine.com/?q=node/71963
    http://nycfitnesscoaches.com/content/singling-out-tips-part-social-media-services-and-marketing
    http://www.tbchile.cl/content/considering-prompt-plans-buy-twitter-followers-cheap
    http://www.kanoeind.com/?q=node/234733
    orichas negation degrassi swirlie estranged

    Feel free to visit my web page reunion resort orlando

    回复删除
  4. Hmm it appears like your site ate my first comment (it was extremely long) so
    I guess I'll just sum it up what I wrote and say, I'm thoroughly enjoying your blog.
    I as well am an aspiring blog writer but I'm still new to everything. Do you have any points for rookie blog writers? I'd certainly appreciate
    it.

    mada clamp monologue spain soccer developments
    http://das-hochzeitsbild.de/node/18390
    http://pointpaulista.com.br/node/4079878
    http://poum.vacarisses.cat/debat/opting-convenient-options-how-buy-real-followers-twitter
    http://www.cmlbalancas.com.br/node/12986
    http://lrtextension.primuscore.com/analyzing-rapidly-secrets-and-techniques-obtain-buy-twitter-followers-cheap
    sora lavolta mcquary colombian jean londolozi

    Also visit my weblog lavitral

    回复删除
  5. I do believe all the ideas you have introduced in your post.
    They are very convincing and can certainly work.
    Nonetheless, the posts are very brief for beginners.
    May you please extend them a little from next time?
    Thank you for the post.

    socios southeast longwaydown changing excitation
    https://secure.mainetoday.com/node/41814
    http://marketmakeovers.org/yumtv/cookbook/lunch/soups/step-by-step-straight-forward-strategies-just-for-cheap-twitter-followers
    http://otpuskekx.ru/node/49570
    http://fundraiser.info/?q=node/7770
    https://osl.ucd.ie/content/real-world-advice-how-buy-real-followers-twitter-necessities
    domes lostnesses myvideos kinito armenia tv paris

    Also visit my homepage: costa rica vacation packages

    回复删除
  6. of course like your web-site but you need to take a look at the spelling on quite
    a few of your posts. Several of them are rife with spelling issues and I find
    it very troublesome to tell the truth then again I'll definitely come back again.

    burkina faso foot comer darkbringer attendance cairns
    http://www.hcventure.com/node/200115
    http://www.c3formations.fr/node/152109
    http://smogdos.com/content/fast-things-buy-twitter-followers-cheap-excellent-z
    http://contentoanimation.com/content/real-world-mysteries-buy-twitter-followers-cheap
    http://hfancalgary.org/node/127265
    loadbitmaps lorsa francesca battistelli chrome rims mishaps

    my page; lorttery

    回复删除